Essay on Poverty in India: Top Reasons, Effects and Solutions

Poverty is a sad situation where people are deprived of even the basic necessities in life. This means lack of adequate food, adequate clothing and adequate shelter. India is considered one of the poorest countries in the world. There are many people in India who do not even receive two meals per day. They do not even have a roof above their head and their children are usually deprived of the right to education. The poor in India do not get a proper diet or nutrition. Although India has been independent for over 65 years, the conditions in India have not improved considerably.

Essays on poverty in india

Urban India

Much like a developing country, the rise of urban population in India is one the rise. This rise can be attributed to quite a few factors:

  • People from rural areas migrate to bigger towns and cities to find better employment opportunities.
  • More than 8 crore people in urban India fall below the poverty line.
  • It is also estimated that almost 4.5 crore people in urban India are on the borderline of poverty.
  • Almost 35% of the population of the four metro cities is made up of slum population.
  • There are various initiatives that have been implemented to deal with the problem of slum dwellers without much result.

Rural India

Survey reveals that the people that live in urban India are suffering from severe poverty. While the government may put in efforts to improve their conditions, the result is not satisfactory. The following stats about rural India are really shocking:

  • The major source of income for most rural households is labor jobs and cultivation. Almost 51% people are involved in labor work and 30% are involved in cultivation.
  • Almost 48.5% of rural households are deprived of basic necessities.
  • It is estimated that only 4.58% of rural households pay income tax.
  • Almost 13% of rural families live in a one room house.

The Causes Of Poverty

There are a number of reasons for poverty in India. One of the main causes is the constantly growing population and the poor methods used for agriculture. Another reason why poverty is so prominent in India is because of the distribution of wealth which is mostly in the hands of the rich. These rich people create a huge gap due to the constant corruption and the amount of black money in India.

Poor Agriculture

A large number of people in India depend on agriculture and this is one of the main economies of the country. However, agriculture is not given as much attention as it should in India and most farmers are below the poverty line, uneducated and unaware of the modern methods of farming. While they have good land, they do not know how to cultivate good crops. This results in a poor harvest which they are forced to sell to corrupt rich people at a very low margin.


The population in India is rapidly increasing. Unfortunately there are not enough resources for this population. The population is increasing so rapidly it is tough to arrange for resources for all these people. There is always a constant demand for food, clothing, shelter, hospitals and education. While these problems are not so common in urban areas, the rural areas do not have enough resources. Education is one of the main resources that are scare in rural areas. A large number of the people from rural areas are uneducated.


The gap between the rich and the poor is very high in India. This gap is increasing by the day. The only way this can be changed is when the social system in the country undergoes some changes. People in India need to stop focusing on caste and sub caste and the related issues. They need to give preference to talent instead of what community a person belongs to or how much money a person has.

Effects Of Poverty

There are various effects of poverty that affect individuals and society as a whole. Some of those effects are:

  • Illiteracy: With poverty comes the struggle to earn a daily living. Education is a far off thought when people do not even get their basic necessities.
  • Child Labor: Due to families being affected by poverty, many children are forced to work to support their families.
  • Diet & Nutrition: Poverty causes a huge problem with the nutrition of people. Lack of money results in insufficient food being available to people.
  • Poor Living Conditions: People who fall below the poverty line have trouble securing proper clothes, food and shelter.
  • Unemployment: Since most of the people living below the poverty line are illiterate and unskilled, there have very few employment opportunities.
  • Hygiene Issues: Since people living below the poverty line have little knowledge about sanitation and hygiene, they live in very poor surroundings. The water that is available to them for drinking is also dirty and unsafe.


There are a number of things that need to be changed in order for India to overcome the poverty issue that it faces. Some of the solutions that can be implemented are as follows

  • Proper education on irrigation for farmers.
  • Education, training on how to implement new farming methods.
  • A fixed selling price for farmers to reap better profits.
  • Population should be brought under control.
  • Families should be educated about family planning.
  • Higher authorities should be hired on the basis of talent, not money.
  • Corruption should end.

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